According to The National Institute of Mental Health;
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that comes and goes with the seasons, typically starting in the late fall and early winter and going away during the spring and summer. Depressive episodes linked to the summer can occur, but are much less common than winter episodes of SAD.
Signs and Symptoms
Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every day
Feeling hopeless or worthless
Having low energy
Losing interest in activities you once enjoyed
Having problems with sleep
Experiencing changes in your appetite or weight
Feeling sluggish or agitated
Having difficulty concentrating
Having frequent thoughts of death or suicide.
Having low energy
Craving for carbohydrates
Social withdrawal (feel like “hibernating”)
Poor appetite with associated weight loss
Episodes of violent behavior
Risk Factors that may increase your risk of SAD include:
Being female. SAD is diagnosed four times more often in women than men.
Living far from the equator. SAD is more frequent in people who live far north or south of the equator.
Family history. People with a family history of other types of depression are more likely to develop SAD than people who do not have a family history of depression.
Having depression or bipolar disorder. The symptoms of depression may worsen with the seasons if you have one of these conditions (but SAD is diagnosed only if seasonal depressions are the most common).
Younger Age. Younger adults have a higher risk of SAD than older adults. SAD has been reported even in children and teens.
Treatments and Therapies
There are four major types of treatment for SAD:
These may be used alone or in combination.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are used to treat SAD. The FDA has also approved the use of bupropion, another type of antidepressant, for treating SAD.
Light therapy has been a mainstay of treatment for SAD since the 1980s. The idea behind light therapy is to replace the diminished sunshine of the fall and winter months using daily exposure to bright, artificial light. Symptoms of SAD may be relieved by sitting in front of a light box first thing in the morning, on a daily basis from the early fall until spring. Most typically, light boxes filter out the ultraviolet rays and require 20-60 minutes of exposure to 10,000 lux of cool-white fluorescent light, an amount that is about 20 times greater than ordinary indoor lighting.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is type of psychotherapy that is effective for SAD. Traditional cognitive behavioral therapy has been adapted for use with SAD (CBT-SAD). CBT-SAD relies on basic techniq